среда, 21 октября 2015 г.

7 wonders of the world. Lighthouse of Alexandria



The seven wonders on Antipater's list won esimates for their notable features, ranging from superlatives of the highest or largest of their types, to the artistry.Their architectural and artistic features were imitated throughout the Hellenistic world and beyond. The Lighthouse of Alexandria, sometimes or the Pharos of Alexandria was a lighthouse built by the Ptolemaic Kingdom between 280 and 247 BC which was between 393 and 450 ft (120 and 137 m) tall. One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, it was one of the tallest man-made structures in the world for many centuries. Badly damaged by three earthquakes between AD 956 and 1323, it then became an abandoned ruin. In 1994, French archaeologists discovered some remains of the lighthouse on the floor of Alexandria's Eastern Harbour.  

The Lighthouse on coins minted in Alexandria in the second century (1: reverse of a coin of Antoninus Pius, and 2: reverse of a coin of Commodus).

Origin-Three-dimensional reconstruction based on a comprehensive 2006 study
Pharos was a small island just off the coast of the Nile Delta's western edge. In 332 BC when Alexander the Great founded the city of Alexandria on an  channel opposite to Pharos.

Destruction-The lighthouse was badly damaged in the earthquake of 956, and then again in 1303 and 1323. Finally the stubby remnant disappeared in 1480, when the then-Sultan of Egypt, Qaitbay, built a medieval fort on the larger platform of the pharos using some of the fallen stone.
Recent archaeological research

French archaeologists led by Jean-Yves Empereur discovered remains of the lighthouse in late 1994 on the floor of Alexandria's Eastern Harbour.  Subsequent satellite imaging has revealed further remains. It is possible to go diving and see the ruins. The secretariat of the UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage are currently working with the Government of Egypt on an initiative to add the bay of Alexandria (to include remains of the lighthouse) on a World Heritage List of submerged cultural sites.
Construction

Lighthouse remains found in the Mediterranean Sea.
The lighthouse was constructed in the 3rd century BC. After Alexander the Great died of a fever at age 32, the first Ptolemy (Ptolemy I Soter) announced himself king in 305 BC, and commissioned its construction shortly thereafter. The building was finished during the reign of his son, the second Ptolemy (Ptolemy II Philadelphus). It took twelve years to complete, at a total cost of 800 talents, and served as a prototype for all later lighthouses in the world. 

Lighthouse remains found in the Mediterranean Sea.
The lighthouse was constructed in the 3rd century BC. After Alexander the Great died of a fever at age 32, the first Ptolemy (Ptolemy I Soter) announced himself king in 305 BC, and commissioned its construction shortly thereafter. The building was finished during the reign of his son, the second Ptolemy (Ptolemy II Philadelphus). It took twelve years to complete, at a total cost of 800 talents, and served as a prototype for all later lighthouses in the world. 
Pharos in culture

The lighthouse remains a civic symbol of the city of Alexandria and of the Alexandria Governorate. A stylised representation of the lighthouse appears on the flag and seal of the Governorate and on many public services of the city, including the seal of Alexandria University.
In architecture

A well-preserved ancient tomb in the town of Abusir, 48 kilometres  southwest of Alexandria. It dates to the reign of Ptolemy II , and is therefore likely to have been built at about the same time as the Alexandria Pharos.
The design of minarets in many early Egyptian Islamic mosques followed a similar three-stage design to that of the Pharos, attesting to the building's broader architectural influence.
The George Washington Masonic National Memorial, located in Alexandria, Virginia, is fashioned after the ancient Lighthouse of Alexandria in Egypt.

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